Scientific

What is S4?

S4, also called andarine, is a variety of non-steroidal Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs). It has often been considered one of the most potent SARMs in terms of its anabolic effects on the body. Due in part to this, S4 has become the most widely studied SARMs compound. As such, S4 is also the first SARMs compound approved for phase 2 clinical research. This allows for the testing of S4 at therapeutic doses and testing on patients. This more extensive research has allowed S4 has also become one of the most flexible SARMs compounds currently created.

S4 has shown a lot of potential in the treatment of illnesses relating to muscle loss, especially those that come with the advance of age. In addition, S4 has also show potential in treating diseases that cause renal atrophy. On top of that, S4 can potentially reduce body fat in rats (Kearbey et al, 2007).[1]

 

History of S4

SARMs were first developed in the 1940s in a steroidal form, intended for the treatment of bone and muscle diseases, like osteoporosis. In the 1990s, scientists developed non-steroidal SARMs. These much reduced the steroid like side effects from SARMs usage.

S4 however did not begin its life as an alternative, non-steroidal treatment for bone and muscle diseases. Instead, S4 began as alternative male contraceptive. Several early clinical studies showed that S4 increased the production of muscle and bone,[2] increased their mass, reduced body fat, and was selective in what it bound itself to. After these early tests, studies and development of S4 as an agent for bone and muscle growth began.

 

How Do SARMs Work

SARMs work by, as their name suggests, selectively binding to androgen receptors. Androgen receptors are themselves agents in the expression of human genes. Androgens are a kind of compound which bind to androgen receptors triggering tissue growth. One of the most common androgen compounds is testosterone, the primary male sex hormone. For this reason androgens are often associated with men.

In contrast to testosterone or anabolic steroids, SARMs selectively bind to androgen receptors. Testosterone binds to and activates every androgen receptor, triggering body wide tissue growth. Testosterone is the primary component of steroids, and so they will bind with all the body’s androgen receptors. This is the cause of steroidal side effects like breast tenderness, abnormal body hair, the decrease or loss of testosterone production, testicle shrinkage, and so on.

SARMs, like S4, are synthetic and designed to target only desired androgen receptors. Hence they are selective in what they bind to. These means that a SARMs compound will only trigger bone growth in certain tissue. This is the potential advantage of SARMs. They can trigger desired tissue growth without targeting other androgen receptors.

 

How Does S4 Specifically Work

S4, like all SARMs, is an androgen receptor modulator. An androgen receptor modulator binds to an androgen receptor and alter its structure to behave a desired way. Often to produce more protein, tissue mass, and so on. S4 binds to selected androgen receptors and alters them so that when receptors interact with androgens only selected tissue will grow.

S4 is often compared to the steroid winstrol. However, it is one-third the strength of testosterone. S4 can thus trigger the desired effects of testosterone without the many negative side effects of steroids.

 

Potential Advantages of S4 Use

S4 is a very potent and versatile SARMs compound. It is a very effective SARMs compound that can be used to improve bone and muscle mass. This can aide in the treatment of diseases that involve tissue atrophy. Likewise, it can adapted to target different kinds of tissue growth more easily than other SARMs.

In addition, S4 causes very little growth to secondary male sex organs and very little growth in male features in women. S4 does not diminish testosterone production either, nor will it cause renal damage. Finally, S4 does not cause heart damage or growth in the surrounding tissue.

 

Continued Research on S4

Despite the advantages of S4, the use of this compound needs more research as negative side effects still exist. Perhaps the most prevalent side effect of S4 is its impact on vision. S4 can cause a yellowing of the eyes and difficulty seeing at night. This is potentially mitigated by using the compound for five days and then ceasing its use for two days before starting over.

Along with this, as the use of S4 goes on, its effectiveness decreases. Likewise, while the steroid like side effects of modern SARMs has decreased, those still exist as well. Prolonged use of S4 can still cause the growth of secondary sex characteristics. However, this does require extensive and prolonged use.

 

[1] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2039878/

[2] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16099859

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